Novelist, born in Lübeck, N Germany. He left school at 19, and spent some time at Munich University before becoming a writer, like his brother Heinrich. His early masterpiece, Buddenbrooks (1901), traced the decline of a family over four generations. He produced several short stories and novellas, such as Der Tod in Venedig (1913, Death in Venice; filmed, 1971; opera by Britten, 1971–3), and then wrote Der Zauberberg (1924, The Magic Mountain). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1929. He left Germany for Switzerland in 1933, was deprived of his German citizenship, and settled in the USA in 1936. He returned to Switzerland in 1947, and produced his greatest work, a modern version of the mediaeval legend, Doktor Faustus (1947).
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