Writer and playwright, born in Dublin, Ireland. He became a lecturer in English at the Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris and later in French at Trinity College, Dublin. From 1932 he lived mostly in France and was, for a time, an associate of James Joyce. His early poetry and first two novels, Murphy (1936) and Watt (c.1943, published 1953), were written in English, but not the trilogy Molloy (1951), Malone Meurt (1951, Malone Dies), and L'Innommable (1953, The Unnamable), or the plays En attendant Godot (1954, Waiting for Godot), which took London by storm, and Fin de partie (1956, End Game), all of which first appeared in French. His later works include Happy Days (1961), Not I (1973), and Ill Seen Ill Said (1981). He was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize for Literature. Although there were one or two increasingly short pieces in later years, he wrote very infrequently towards the end, though his Teleplays appeared in 1988.
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